Characteristics and origins of the walnut

Walnut — Juglans regia L. (2n=16) is related to a sort Juglans, which is a part of

the family of walnut species Juglandaceae Lindl. The origins of Juglans sort go back

to ancient times, tens of thousands of years ago; back then the species were widely

distributed around the whole globe.

Walnut is a highly-developed tree with a distinct and strong stem and skeletal

branches, which form a relatively dense crown, reaching a height of 20-30 m with a

stem of a diameter of 80-150 cm and more. Those growing on thickened

plantations or in industrial gardens are less developed and usually have stems of a

diameter of 30-60 cm. The bark is light gray, with large longitudinal cracks on the

stems and skeletal branches. The buds on the ends of the annual shoots are very

large, up to 0.6-0.8 and 0.5-0.6 cm wide, verges of the buds are sometimes ill-


The leaves are large, complex, composed of 5-9, or sometimes of 13 smaller

leaves, imparipinnate, glabrous above, ragged-wool below veins, at the bottom, up

to 54 cm or more in length; up to 75 cm on coppice shoots.

The fruit is a false drupe ranging from round to elongated form, fleshy with

pubescent or bare green outer sheath and woody endocardium with varying

thickness, smooth or wrinkled and even pitted with depressions surface, with blunt

or sharp edges or grooves.

The fruit is divided into two or four incomplete baffles, which is why the seeds are

also two- or four-bladed. The seed with two cotyledons is covered with a light-

brown shell, rich in tannins.

Walnut is a light-requiring fast-growing deciduous species. Already at the age of

one year, the seedlings reach a height of 50 cm or more; in three-four years, if

grown in moist areas, the trees can reach a height of 3-4 m. The tree vegetates for

150-170 days.

The intensive growth of shoots is noticed at the beginning of the growing season. In

July the growth of shoots is slowing down, and in mid-late August it ends with the

formation of the apical bud.

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