All parts of the plant contain a lot of biologically active substances: bark –
triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, vitamin C, tannins, quinones (juglone, etc.);
leaves – aldehydes, essential oils, alkaloids, vitamins C, PP, carotene, phenol
carbonic acids, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, quinones and higher
aromatic hydrocarbons; pericarp – organic acids, vitamin C, carotene, phenol
carbonic acids, tannins, coumarins and quinones.
The green nuts one can find vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, carotene and quinones: in
mature ones – sterols, vitamin C, B1, B2, PP, carotene, tannins, quinones and fatty
oil, which comprises linoleic, linolenic, olei , palmitic acid and others, as well as
fiber, iron and cobalt salts. The shell contains phenol carbonic acids, tannins and
coumarins; pellicle (a thin brown skin covering the fruit) – steroids, phenol carbonic
acids, tannins and coumarins.
Mature nuts contain vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B12, C, K, E, PP, carotene, tannins,
quinones, linoleic, linolenic acid, juglone, essential oils, volatile, and a small amount
of gallic. They are rich in mineral elements: Phosphorus:390 – 600 mg, Potassium:
600 – 1300 mg, Magnesium: 150 – 250 mg, Ca: 85 – 180 mg, Sulfur: 50 – 100 mg,
Iron: 5 – 25 mg, Aluminum: 5 – 10 mg, Manganese: 2 – 15 mg, Zinc: 2.5 – 6 mg,
much less of iodine, cobalt, copper, strontium, chromium, fluorine, nickel.
In the cotyledons of the nut all main amino acids and concentrated: glutathione,
cysteine, lysine, histidine, arginine, glutamic and asparagine acid, alanine, proline,
The amount of vitamin C in the leaves of walnut is gradually increasing and
eventually reaches a maximum in the middle of the growing period. Large amount
of carotene is the main value of the leaves. In addition, tannins, coloring matter
juglone, which has a bactericidal effect, and traces of essential oils have been found
as compounds in the leaves’ structure.