Chemical composition

All parts of the plant contain a lot of biologically active substances: bark –

triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, vitamin C, tannins, quinones (juglone, etc.);

leaves – aldehydes, essential oils, alkaloids, vitamins C, PP, carotene, phenol

carbonic acids, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, quinones and higher

aromatic hydrocarbons; pericarp – organic acids, vitamin C, carotene, phenol

carbonic acids, tannins, coumarins and quinones.

The green nuts one can find vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, carotene and quinones: in

mature ones – sterols, vitamin C, B1, B2, PP, carotene, tannins, quinones and fatty

oil, which comprises linoleic, linolenic, olei , palmitic acid and others, as well as

fiber, iron and cobalt salts. The shell contains phenol carbonic acids, tannins and

coumarins; pellicle (a thin brown skin covering the fruit) – steroids, phenol carbonic

acids, tannins and coumarins.

Mature nuts contain vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B12, C, K, E, PP, carotene, tannins,

quinones, linoleic, linolenic acid, juglone, essential oils, volatile, and a small amount

of gallic. They are rich in mineral elements: Phosphorus:390 – 600 mg, Potassium:

600 – 1300 mg, Magnesium: 150 – 250 mg, Ca: 85 – 180 mg, Sulfur: 50 – 100 mg,

Iron: 5 – 25 mg, Aluminum: 5 – 10 mg, Manganese: 2 – 15 mg, Zinc: 2.5 – 6 mg,

much less of iodine, cobalt, copper, strontium, chromium, fluorine, nickel.

In the cotyledons of the nut all main amino acids and concentrated: glutathione,

cysteine, lysine, histidine, arginine, glutamic and asparagine acid, alanine, proline,


The amount of vitamin C in the leaves of walnut is gradually increasing and

eventually reaches a maximum in the middle of the growing period. Large amount

of carotene is the main value of the leaves. In addition, tannins, coloring matter

juglone, which has a bactericidal effect, and traces of essential oils have been found

as compounds in the leaves’ structure.

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